How does the endocrine system regulate metabolism in the human body?

Health

The endocrine system is a system of organs that produce and secrete hormones.  These chemicals are created in the body that regulate the function of various bodily tissues. These hormones regulate growth, metabolism, and sexual development and function. When these hormones are released into the bloodstream, they can affect several different organs in the body. Endocrine systems control nearly all the processes of the body however our focus in this article is endocrine and body metabolism.

Followings are the organs in the endocrine system:

  • Hypothalamus
  • Pituitary
  • Thyroid
  • Parathyroids
  • Adrenals
  • Pineal body
  • Reproductive organs (ovaries and testes)
  • Pancreas

Hormones are chemical messengers that communicate with your organs, skin, muscles, and other tissues throughout your body, allowing them to coordinate different actions. These signals instruct your body on what to do and when to do it, among other things.

The pituitary gland regulates the production of hormones in the body. It is similar to how a thermostat regulates the temperature of a room in that the endocrine system is controlled by feedback. A signal is delivered from the brain to the pituitary gland in the form of a “releasing hormone,” which stimulates the pituitary gland to emit a “stimulating hormone” into the circulation. The stimulating hormone then signals the target gland to secrete the hormone that it has been signalled to secrete. In response to an increase in the amount of this hormone in circulation, the hypothalamus and pituitary gland reduces the secretion of the releasing hormone and the stimulating hormone, which causes the target gland to secrete less hormone in response to this increase. This system ensures that hormone levels in the blood are steady.

What is metabolism?

In biology, the term “metabolism” refers to all of the chemical reactions within cells and within an organism to maintain their living states. Metabolism can be divided into two categories conveniently:

  • Catabolism: the breakdown of complex molecules to form a simpler one
  • Anabolism: the process to create complex molecules from simpler ones

Nutrition and the availability of nutrients have a significant impact on metabolic rate. When we talk about bioenergetics, we’re talking about the biochemical and metabolic pathways that the cell uses to obtain energy in the end. The production of energy is one of the most important components of metabolism.

How does the endocrine system regulate metabolism in the human body?

The thyroid gland plays a crucial role in the metabolism of the body. The thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormones, mainly thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroid hormones stimulate a wide range of metabolic activities in a wide range of tissues, resulting in an increase in basal metabolic rate in most cases. One consequence of this activity appears to be an increase in body heat production. Normal growth and development are dependent on thyroid hormone (TH). Thyroid hormone is a hormone that regulates metabolic processes that are necessary for normal growth and development. It is well established that the presence or absence of thyroid hormones is associated with body weight and energy expenditure. Hyperthyroidism, a condition of excess thyroid hormone, promotes a hypermetabolic state. In contrast, hypothyroidism is associated with hypometabolism. 

The pancreas secretes insulin and glucagon, and these hormones play roles in regulating the metabolism. Insulin and glucagon play a crucial role in regulating macronutrient digestion and hence the regulation of metabolism.

Adrenal glands also have roles in regulating body metabolism. Adrenal glands secrete hormones like epinephrine and glucocorticoids. These hormones play roles in regulating metabolism. Glucocorticoid is an overall catabolic hormone that may increase energy expenditure. Epinephrine stimulates the breaking down of glycogen and the production of glucose. Epinephrine also leads to an increase in body temperature, thus burning more calories. 

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